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Thursday, April 28, 2016

AVOID MISTAKES IN THE USE OF NOUNS


AVOID MISTAKES IN THE USE OF NOUNS

  • Incorrect: He lives with his elder.
  • Correct: He lives with his elder brother.
  • Incorrect: Please give me some blotting.
  • Correct: Please give me some blotting paper.
  • Incorrect: They sent him to a boarding.
  • Correct: They sent him to a boarding school.
Notes
The expressions the elder and the eldest are used as nouns.
  • He is the elder of the two.
Nouns that do not have a plural form
The following nouns do not have a plural form: rice, corn, food, cattle, furniture, mischief, filth, dirt, needlework, woodwork, machinery, hair, advice, poetry, abuse, scenery, clergy and fuel.
  • Incorrect: Switzerland is famous for its beautiful sceneries.
  • Correct: Switzerland is famous for its beautiful scenery.
  • Incorrect: Indians have black hairs.
  • Correct: Indians have black hair.
  • Incorrect: I don’t need your advices.
  • Correct: I don’t need your advice.
Notes
The nouns rice, corn, food etc., have a plural form as well. The plural forms are used only when different varieties of rice, corn or foodare mentioned.
The nouns brick and stone are usually used in the singular form to talk about the material used to build a home.
  • This house is built of stone. (NOT This house is built of stones.)
The nouns cattle, clergy and people are already plural in sense. They don’t have any plural form. For example, you can’t say cattles.

Saturday, April 23, 2016

SOME COMMON IDIOMS


SOME COMMON IDIOMS

Here are some common idioms in English.
Rise to the occasion
When you rise to the occasion, you are able to cope with the circumstances.
See eye to eye
When you do not see eye to eye with someone, you do not agree with them.
Fair and square
If a deal is fair and square, it is just and honest.
Flog a dead horse
To flog a dead horse is to waste your time and energy on a cause that will not yield any results.
Face the music
To face the music is to face criticism.
Fan the flame
To fan the flame is to make a bad situation worse.
Feather one’s own nest
To feather your own nest is to make yourself rich in ways that are unfair or dishonest.
From hand to mouth
To live from hand to mouth is to live on very little money.
For good
If someone leaves a country for good, they leave for ever.
To fish in troubled waters
To fish in troubled waters is to take undue advantage of others’ problems.
The gift of gab
The gift of gab is the power of speech
Grope in the dark
To grope in the dark is to search in vain.
Grease the palm
To grease the palm is to give someone money to persuade them to do something for you.
Gird up one’s loins
To gird up one’s loins is to prepare oneself for difficult or dangerous actions.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

FARTHER AND FURTHER EXERCISE


FARTHER AND FURTHER EXERCISE

Notes
Both further and farther can be used to talk about distance.
Further can also mean ‘additional’.
1. Delhi is ………………………. away than Mumbai.
a) further
b) farther
c) Either could be used here
2. If you need …………………. information, please contact our support team.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
3. It wasn’t year 1995 – it was ………………….. back than that.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
4. Jaipur is …………………. away than Mumbai.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
5. James threw the ball ……………….. than Peter.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
6. The fog was so thick that I couldn’t see ……………….. than a few inches.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
7. It is 20 kilometers or …………………… from here.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
8. I don’t want to go any …………………… today.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here
9. We can’t expect any ………………….. help from them.
a) farther
b) further
c) Either could be used here

Answers

1. Delhi is farther/further away than Mumbai.
2. If you need further information, please contact our support team.
3. It wasn’t year 1995 – it was further back than that.
4. Jaipur is further/farther away than Mumbai.
5. James threw the ball farther/further than Peter.
6. The fog was so thick that I couldn’t see farther / further than a few inches.
7. It is 20 kilometers or farther/further from here.
8. I don’t want to go any further / farther today.
9. We can’t expect any further help from them.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

USES OF THE COMMA


USES OF THE COMMA
The comma is used to indicate a pause between parts of a sentence.
Uses of the comma
Before and after words used in apposition to a noun
·         Winston Churchill, the statesman, was also an eminent writer.
Janaki, my sister, is an eminent cardiologist.
To separate two or more nouns, adjectives, or adverbs that come together
·         England, Russia and France formed an alliance.
To separate a participial phrase
·         Feeling tired, I went to bed.
·         Being fat, she couldn’t run fast.
To mark off a noun
·         James, can we bank on him?
·         Mary, have your meals.
·         John, come here.
After an introductory phrase or clause
·         To be honest, I have little interest in politics.
·         For God’s sake, leave me alone.
·         In the name of justice, be fair to that poor man.
To indicate the omission of a verb in cases where repetition should be avoided
·         My brother bought a watch and my sister, a camera. (= My brother bought a watch and my sister bought a camera.)
Before and after words or phrases let into the body of a sentence
·         She had, surprisingly, paid for everything.
·         The boy had, in spite of all the hardships he faced, managed to succeed.
To separate a subordinate clause from the main clause
·         After he had finished his job, he went out.
·         When I opened the door, the cat jumped in.
The comma can be omitted when the subordinate clause goes after the main clause.


Friday, April 1, 2016

COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES

 

COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES

A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. Common examples of coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so.

A complex sentence has a main clause and one or more dependent clauses. In a complex sentence we use a subordinating conjunction to connect the dependent clause to the main clause. Common examples of subordinating conjunctions are: as, when, while, because, since, after, before, although, though, if, whether, unless and until.
We can change a compound sentence into a complex sentence by replacing the coordinating conjunction with a subordinating conjunction. Study the examples given below.
The doctor must come at once or the patient will die. (Compound sentence)
If the doctor does not come at once, the patient will die. (Complex sentence)
Gandhi believed in non-violence but some of his followers were extremists. (Compound sentence)
Though Gandhi believed in non-violence some of his followers were extremists. (Complex sentence)
Search his pockets and you will find the stolen watch. (Compound sentence)
If you search his pockets, you will find the stolen watch. (Complex sentence)
You must hurry or you will miss the train. (Compound sentence)
If you do not hurry you will miss the train. (Complex sentence)
He wants to be a scholar, so he is studying hard. (Compound sentence)
As he wants to be a scholar he is studying hard. (Complex sentence)