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Tuesday, February 9, 2016

COMPARISON EXERCISE


COMPARISON EXERCISE

1. The elephant is ……………………. land animal.
a) the big
b) the bigger
c) the biggest
2. The cheetah is …………………….. animal.
a) the fast
b) the faster
c) the fastest
3. The tortoise has a ………………. lifespan than any other animal.
a) long
b) longer
c) longest
4. Mt. Everest is ………………… peak in the world.
a) the high
b) the higher
c) the highest
5. Asia is …………………… than Africa.
a) big
b) bigger
c) biggest
6. China has ………………… population in the world.
a) large
b) the largest
c) the larger
7. One gram is …………………. than a kilo.
a) light
b) lighter
c) lightest
8. The Nile is ……………….. than any other river.
a) long
b) longer
c) longest
9. Greenland is …………….. island.
a) the large
b) the larger
c) the largest

ANSWERS

1. The elephant is the biggest land animal.
2. The cheetah is the fastest animal.
3. The tortoise has a longer lifespan than any other animal.
4. Mt. Everest is the highest peak in the world.
5. Asia is larger than Africa.
6. China has the largest population in the world.
7. One gram is lighter than a kilo.
8. The Nile is longer than any other river.
9. Greenland is the largest island.


COMBINE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES


COMBINE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. They caught the thief. They handed him over to the police. (Use having)
2. The thief heard a noise. He ran away. (Use hearing)
3. He is very fat. He cannot walk fast. (Use too)
4. She was very tired. She could not stand up. (Use so that)
5. She left home at 4. She hasn’t arrived yet. (Use although)
6. The tortoise was slow. He beat the hare in the race. (Use though)
7. You will not be able to meet him. You have to be there before 3 pm. (Use unless or if)
8. You may work very hard. Still you cannot please him. (Use however)
9. He is ill. He attends office regularly. (Use in spite of)
10. I bought some apples yesterday. They were good. (Use which)

Answers

1. Having caught the thief, they handed him over to the police.
2. Hearing a noise, the thief ran away.
3. He is too fat to walk fast.
4. She was so tired that she could not stand up.
5. Although she left home at 4, she hasn’t arrived yet.
6. Though the tortoise was slow, he beat the hare in the race.
7. Unless you reach there before 3 pm, you will not be able to meet him. / If you do not reach there before 3 pm, you will not be able to meet him.
8. However hard you may work, you cannot please him.
9. In spite of his illness, he attends office regularly.
10. The apples that I bought yesterday were good.


DIRECT TO INDIRECT SPEECH: GENERAL RULES


DIRECT TO INDIRECT SPEECH: GENERAL RULES

Direct speech: The boy said, ‘I’m happy with my results.’
Indirect speech: The boy said that he was happy with his results.

General rules for changing direct speech into indirect speech

Omit all inverted commas or quotation marks. End the sentence with a full stop.
If the verb inside the inverted commas/quotation marks is in the present tense, change it into the corresponding past tense. If it is in the simple past tense, change it into the past perfect tense.
Direct speech: The girl said, ‘I like singing.’
Indirect speech: The girl said that she liked singing.
Direct speech: Rahul said, ‘I will have to reach home by 8.30.’
Indirect speech: Rahul said that he would have to reach home by 8.30.
Direct speech: Alina said, ‘I met James yesterday.’
Indirect speech: Alina said that she had met James yesterday.
When the verb inside the quotation marks expresses a universal truth, we do not normally change it into the past tense.
He said, ‘All people have equal rights.’
He said that all people have equal rights. (More natural than ‘He said that all people had equal rights.’)
Use pronouns appropriately.
Study the examples given below.
Direct speech: The boy told the girl, ‘I told you that we were not going on a holiday.’
Indirect speech: The boy told the girl that he had told her that theywere not going on a holiday.

Notes

When the reporting verb is in a present or future tense, we do not change the tense of the verb inside the quotation marks.
Direct speech: She says, ‘I will come.’
Indirect speech: She says that she will come.


REPORTING DIFFERENT KINDS OF SENTENCES


REPORTING DIFFERENT KINDS OF SENTENCES
 REPORTING STATEMENTS
Put ‘that’ before the reported statement.
Use the reporting verb ‘said’ or ‘told’. Note that the verb ‘told’ should be followed by an object. The verb ‘said’ cannot be followed by an object.
Direct speech: Rohan said, ‘I like this music.’
Indirect speech: Rohan said that he liked that music.
Direct speech: Alice said, ‘James, I want you to attend the function.’
Indirect speech: Alice told James that she wanted him to attend the function. (NOT Alice said James…)
REPORTING WH-QUESTIONS
Omit the question mark.
Put the subject of the question before the verb.
Use a reporting verb like asked, requested, or wanted to know.
Put an object after the reporting verb.
Direct speech: ‘What are you doing?’ asked his father.
Indirect speech: His father asked him what he was doing. (NOT His father asked him what was he doing.)
REPORTING YES-NO QUESTIONS
Omit the question mark.
Introduce the reported question with whether or if.
Put the subject of the Yes-No question before the verb.
Use the reporting verb asked.
Direct speech: ‘Are you happy?’ he asked her.
Indirect speech: He asked her if she was happy.
REPORTING IMPERATIVE SENTENCES
Put ‘to’ before the reported command or request.
Use a reporting verb like asked, told, ordered, requested, urged, advised or begged.
‘Alice, bring me a chair,’ said her father.
Alice’s father asked her to bring him a chair.